Gale says to know for sure, he would "need an instrument called a gas chromatograph." Conventional cushions to prevent this disease have not realized load dispersion sufficiently or prevention of bottoming sufficiently due to the structure of filling units of air or liquid in the cushions. I also love Breaking Bad! It is necessary to develop the healthcare devices for satisfying the demands from caregivers in the aging society. In this paper, we propose a new velocity constraint type for Redundant Drive Wire Mechanisms. However, So it is all quite simple – maybe too simple? It’s really interesting to notice that pseudoephedrine and methamphetamine have almost identical chemical structure apart from the hydroxyl group. 16. Jpn. 1997;529:295-299. Rowe J.E. Many believe the first clandestine labs originated in the California bay area from this environment around 1962 . When you register on this website, please ensure you view our terms and conditions. Enterprising biker gangs who dominated the trade at this time mostly ran these operations. In recent years, stroke patients requiring rehabilitation are increasing. 1995; 76:97-114. First, he used phenylacetic acid and acetic acid to generate phenylacetone (P2P), then the addition reaction between methylamine and phenylacetone was triggered, and imine was formed in the meanwhile. The Nagai method employs pseudoephedrine as a precursor, which is reduced with hydroiodic acid (HI) to yield methamphetamine. in nitric acid and react with ethanol. Please note that to comment on an article you must be registered and logged in. given above for methamphetamine HI. The nature of the blue color was unfortunately not determined but speculated to be an additive dye.  N. Stojanovska, S. Fu, M. Tahtouh, T. Kelly, A. Beavis, K. P. Kirkbride, Forensic Sci. aqueous solution. The transient existence of iodoephedrine was detected indirectly by the total 'aziridines'. Asymmetric synthesis of psychotomimetic phenylisopropylamines. (iodomethamphetamine) which is predominately reduced to methamphetamine. comm.). The configurations of ephedrine were determined by reduction of the chloro- and bromoephedrines by Emde4 and 1983;28:18-31. After dedicating the last seven years of my life to organic chemistry, it felt like a natural departure from writing my dissertation to examine this matter more closely. Despite using reductive amination, Walt implies his product is enantiomerically pure in "Box cutter" (S.4E.1). Manufacture of methamphetamine from phenyl-2-propanone (P2P) and methylamine yields (±)-methamphetamine, whereas the reduction of The blue color is At first Walter and Jesse used Nagai method to synthesis methamphetamine, it requires pseudoephedrine as a precursor, and reduced with hydroiodic acid (HI) to produce methamphetamine afterwards, it’s preferred in small-scale production, as known as street drug. Security mechanisms also contain configurable properties for customizing user authentication and authorization. 1 carbon. In "Green Light" (S.3E.4) Walt criticizes Jessie's product, derogatorily stating he probably used a platinum dioxide reduction. Forensics Science International. Ephedrine, a secondary amine, gives a faint blue color. [Sample code] 40. This was a really a unique post and in a very good way! In 2010, Kansas City MO police chief Darryl Forté posted an entry on his blog, saying blue meth was encountered several times in the previous two months. You can produce it just by dissolving mercury (highly toxic!) Breaking Bad was unlike anything that I had ever seen before, it was funny, impressive and fascinating. 2008. However it's pyrophoric nature and cost are downfalls. This means Walt's statement regarding R-thalidomide being safe to give to a pregnant women is technically false as the R-thalidomide would convert to the teratogenic S-thalidomide in the body. methamphetamine HI can be extracted from an aqueous solution with chloroform. The second part is a two percent sodium carbonate solution. This "blue meth" or "blue ice" was allegedly more potent and expensive—with two samples found to be an impressive 98.4 and 98.2 percent pure d-methamphetamine. Despite its light blue coloration, Walt's product is highly pure. No, they aren't perfect. National Drug Threat Assessment. Quantitation of both solid and liquid samples found in HI/red P laboratories is routinely done by HPLC and GC. The resulting product is then separated from any remaining starting materials or by-products by steam distillation. No.00CH37113), Proceedings of 1993 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS '93), 2006 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2003 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (Cat. 86, 014708 (2017) arXiv:1607.03992 The sample code is available. 1. (A clandestine meth chemist using the pseudonym Loius Feech writes of his own experience with PtO2 spontaneously exploding in his lab  in his guide Large Scale Methamphetamine Manufacture.) Meanwhile clandestine operations became more complex, dangerous, and environmentally hazardous. First, an ether wash is required to remove the Forensic Science International. However, major manufacturers currently adopt similar mechanisms based on the XY table structure for realizing high positional accuracy and use motors with similar performance characteristics. Like Walt's blue, the colors result from impurities formed during the reaction. In the Nagai method, the β-hydroxyl group on ephedrine or pseudoephedrine is protonated forming a hydronium ion leaving group. Finally, the oil obtained from the distillation has to be crystallized from an organic solvent, e.g. to form the 'naphthalene' impurities, 1,3-dimethyl-2-phenylnaphthalene and 1-benzyl-3-methylnaphthalene10. 2 carbons of the propane chain. It is really amazing that by removing this hydroxyl group, you will turn a common everyday medicine into a dangerous and highly addictive psychoactive drug which can ruin people’s lives. All comments are subject to moderation. To identify the method by which they will be authenticated, users must choose a security mechanism as part of the logon string. If Walt's product is pure d-methamphetamine, we can assume he must use some technique to separate or "resolve" the isomers, because the starting material is not chiral and the reduction not stereospecific. Reaction of P2P and methylamine produces an imine which can then be reduced to racemic d-, l- methamphetamine. In Secrets of Methamphetamine Manufacture 7th edition, author and former meth cook Uncle Fester discusses several possible reduction methods for reductive amination—including NaCNBH4, mercury aluminum amalgam reductions, and Hydrogen bomb using H2/PtO2 or Raney nickel . But it was a big issue if they wanted to produce on a scale, so Walter changed his synthesis method in s1e7 by using reductive amination method (P2P method). E. Ogata, J. Pharm. Increased DEA restrictions, including placement of PAA on its "watch list," led to a switch to ephedrine based syntheses. Nagai Method first invented by Nagai in 1983. The steps can be performed in separate reactions or together (one-pot). 1919 by heating (-)-ephedrine or (+)-pseudoephedrine with HI and yellow phosphorus. Patent number: 9628360 Abstract: A computer management system that manages a plurality of types of … HI salt is readily soluble in acetone, unlike the HCl salt which is only slightly soluble. There are a number of ways to make P2P from PAA. Based on several scenes referencing or depicting aluminum metal and mention of "mercury amalgam," Walt and Jesse use the former where aluminum foil is "activated" with HgCl2 to give aluminum amalgam. clandestine laboratory indicates that (±)-methamphetamine, is the product. This method of identification will also work on the discarded red P sludge. (A gas chromatograph or gc vaporizes and separates the components of a sample allowing impurities to be detected and quantified.). Surprisingly many of the law enforcement personal and reporters in Kansas City failed to make the connection to Breaking Bad. I can’t believe that it has been 10 years since Breaking Bad premiered, I can never find another show perfect as Breaking Bad again. This method was once the favorite of small scale meth operations in America—along with the misnamed "Nazi method," which was most common in agricultural areas with access to liquid ammonia fertilizer (Li/NH3 reduction or Birch reduction). His use of a plastic syringe to remove the organic solvent layer is typical of clandestine cooks—an easier alternative favored by legitimate chemists is a separatory funnel.
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